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大学英语自学教程 unit 07

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https://online2.tingclass.net/lesson/shi0529/0008/8709/7.mp3
http://image.tingclass.net/statics/js/2012

[00:00.00]Unit 7 Text A
[00:02.00]第七单元 课文A
[00:04.00]Families
[00:05.47]家庭
[00:06.95]"Family"--the word has different meanings for different people,
[00:10.28]家庭这个词对不同的人有不同的意义,
[00:13.61]and even the dictionary gives us several definitions:
[00:16.34]甚至词典上给出的定义也有几种:
[00:19.07]"a group of people related by blood or marriage,"
[00:21.85]“一群由血缘或者婚姻联系在一起的人,”
[00:24.63]"two adults and their children,"
[00:26.76]“两个成人和他们的孩子,”
[00:28.89]"all those people descended from a common ancestor,""a household,"and so on.
[00:33.16]“那些承袭同一祖先的后裔,”“一户人家”等等。
[00:37.43]Some people think of a family as a mother, a father,and their children;
[00:40.71]有人将家庭看成母亲、父亲和他们的孩子;
[00:43.99]others include grandparents, aunts, uncles,and cousins.
[00:47.27]也有人认为家庭还包括祖父、祖母、婶婶叔叔辈,堂兄妹辈。
[00:50.55]For some of us,family means the group of relative living far away from home.
[00:54.57]对我们之中的有些人来说,家庭意味着离家远住的一帮亲戚;
[00:58.59]For others,having a family simply means having children.
[01:02.13]对另一些人来说,有家只不过意味着有孩子。
[01:05.67]Some families have long histories,
[01:08.10]一些家庭有久远的历史,
[01:10.53]while others know very little about their ancestors.
[01:13.42]另一些家庭则对自己的祖先知之甚少。
[01:16.30]No matter if it is young or old,large or small,traditional or modern,
[01:20.43]无论每个家庭的历史是长是短,家庭是在是小,传统还是现代,
[01:24.56]every family has a sense of what a family is.
[01:27.50]每个家庭都有家庭的某种感受。
[01:30.44]It is that feeling of belonging,
[01:32.96]那是一种来自共同生活、互相帮助、
[01:35.48]of love and security that comes from living together,helping and sharing.
[01:39.89]共则拥有的归属感、互爱感和安全感。
[01:44.31]There are basically two types of families:
[01:47.19]家庭大体上有两类:
[01:50.08]nuclear families and extended families.
[01:52.86]核心家庭和扩大家庭。
[01:55.64]The nuclear family usually consists of two(mother and father)
[01:59.07]核心家庭通常由父母
[02:02.49]and their children.
[02:04.26]及其子女组成,
[02:06.04]The mother and father form the nucleus, or center,of the nuclear family.
[02:09.58]父亲和母亲形成家庭中的核心,或者叫中心。
[02:13.12]The children stay in the nuclear family until they grow up and marry.
[02:16.59]子女在核心家庭中成长直到婚嫁,
[02:20.07]Then they form new nuclear families.
[02:22.85]然后再形成新的核心家庭。
[02:25.63]The extended family is very large.
[02:27.91]扩大的家庭非常大。
[02:30.18]There are often many nuclear families in one extended family.
[02:33.60]在一个扩大的家庭中往往有多个核心家庭。
[02:37.02]An extended family includes children, parents,grand-parents,uncles,aunts,and cousins.
[02:41.29]扩大的家庭包括子女、父母、祖父母、叔伯、姨婶、堂兄妹。
[02:45.56]The members of an extended family are related by blood
[02:48.29]他们由血缘关系
[02:51.02](grandparents,parents,children,brothers,sisters,etc.)
[02:54.15](如:祖父母、父母、子女、兄弟、姐妹等)
[02:57.27]or by marriage (husbands, wives, mothers-in-law, etc. ).
[03:00.55]或者婚姻关系(丈夫、妻子、岳母婆婆)联系在一起。
[03:03.82]They are all related,
[03:05.65]正因为他们互相有亲缘关系,
[03:07.48]so the members of an extended family are called relatives.
[03:10.56]所以扩大的家庭中的民员都称为亲戚。
[03:13.65]Traditionally,all the members of an extended family lived in the same area.
[03:17.28]传统上,扩大的家庭的全部成员都居住在同一个地区。
[03:20.91]However,with the change from an agricultural to an industrial society,
[03:24.45]但是,随着从农业社会向工业社会的转变,
[03:27.99]many nuclear families moved away from the family home in order to find work.
[03:31.96]许多核心家庭离家外出寻找工作。
[03:35.93]In industrial societies today,
[03:38.21]在现在的工业化社会中,
[03:40.50]the members of most nuclear families live together,
[03:43.32]许多核心家庭的成员居住在一起,
[03:46.14]but most extended families do not live together.
[03:48.92]而大部分扩大的家庭成员却分散而住
[03:51.71]Therefore
[03:53.09]因此,
[03:54.48]we can say that the nuclear family becomes more important than the extended family
[03:58.64]随着社会越来越工业化,我们认为核心家庭
[04:02.81]as the society industrializes.
[04:05.47]比扩大的家庭更为重要。
[04:08.14]In post-industrial societies like the United States,
[04:11.02]在一些像美国那样的后工业化国家,
[04:13.91]even the nudear family is changing.
[04:16.29]核心家庭甚至也在发生了变化。
[04:18.66]The nuclear family is becoming smaller as parents want fewer children,
[04:22.44]核心家庭在变小,因为父母都愿要更少的子女,
[04:26.21]and the number of childless families is increasing.
[04:29.00]而且无子女的家庭不断增加。
[04:31.78]Traditionally,the father of a nuclear family earned money for the family
[04:35.55]传统上核心家庭的父亲挣钱养家,
[04:39.33]while the mother eared for the house and the children.
[04:42.00]母亲照看家庭和孩子。
[04:44.68]Today,more than 50% of the nuclear families in the United States are two-earner families
[04:48.91]今天在美国,50%以上的核心家庭由父母两人挣钱养家,
[04:53.15]--both the father and the mother earn money for the family--
[04:56.08]只有少数家庭由母亲挣钱养家,
[04:59.02]and in a few families the mother earns the money
[05:02.45]只有少数家庭由母亲挣钱养家
[05:05.87]while the father takes care of the house and the children.
[05:08.39]而父亲照看家庭和孩子。
[05:10.91]Many nuclear families are also."splitting up'
[05:14.00]许多核心家庭也在“裂变”,
[05:17.10]--more and more parents are getting divorced.
[05:19.76]因为越来越多的父母开始离异。
[05:22.43]What will be the result of this "splitting" of the nuclear family?
[05:25.85]核心家庭分裂的结果是什么?
[05:29.27]Social scientists now talk of two new family forms:
[05:33.05]社会学家现在谈到两种新的家庭形式:
[05:36.82]the single parent family and the remarried family.
[05:40.36]单亲家庭和再婚家庭。
[05:43.90]Almost 20% of all American families are single parent families,
[05:48.17]美国家庭中的近20%是单亲家庭,
[05:52.44]and in 85% of these families the single parent is the mother.
[05:56.62]单亲家庭中有85%为单亲妈妈。
[06:00.80]Most single parents find it very difficult to take care of a family alone,
[06:04.93]大多数单亲父母认为一个人照顾孩子有困难,
[06:09.06]so they soon marry again and form remarried families.
[06:12.99]所以没过多久他们又结婚了,形成再婚家庭
[06:16.92]As social scientists study these two new family forms,
[06:20.40]随着社会学家对这两类新的家庭的研究,
[06:23.87]they will be able to tell us more about the future of the nuclear family
[06:27.59]关于后工业化时代中核心家庭的未来
[06:31.31]in the post-industrial age.
[06:33.64]他们一定能给我们提供更多的情况。

[06:35.96]Text B
[06:37.34]课文B
[06:38.71]The Changing American Family
[06:40.54]变化中的美国家庭
[06:42.36]The family is important to people all over the world
[06:44.74]尽管家庭的结构因国家而异,
[06:47.12]all though the structure of the family
[06:48.79]但家庭对全世界的
[06:50.46]is quite different from one country to another.
[06:52.68]人都很重要。
[06:54.90]In the United States,as in many countries in the world,
[06:57.53]在美国,如同世界上其它许多国家一样,
[07:00.15]the family is changing.
[07:01.83]家庭在发生变化。
[07:03.50]A generation or two ago, the traditional family,
[07:06.07]一代或者两代人以前,传统家庭是惯常现象,
[07:08.64]in which the father was boss, was customary.
[07:11.07]父亲是一家之主。
[07:13.50]Now, the modern family,
[07:15.47]今天,
[07:17.45]in which both the father and the mother are equal partners,
[07:20.23]父母成为平等伴侣的现代家庭
[07:23.01]is more common.
[07:24.54]更常见。
[07:26.07]Although there are several similarities'between the traditional
[07:28.65]尽管传统家庭与现代家庭有一些共同之处,
[07:31.24] and the modem family,there are also some very important differences.
[07:34.41]但他们仍有某些重要的差别。
[07:37.59]The traditional family of yesterday
[07:39.47]往昔的传统家庭
[07:41.35] and the modern family of today have several similarities.
[07:44.01]与今日的现代家庭有几点共同之处:
[07:46.68]The traditional family was a nuclear family,
[07:48.74]传统家庭是核心家庭,
[07:50.80]and the modern family is,too.
[07:52.93]现代家庭也是。
[07:55.06]The role of the father in the traditional family
[07:57.19]在传统家庭中
[07:59.32]was to provide for his family.
[08:01.25]父亲的责任是养家糊口,
[08:03.19]Similarly; the father in the modern family is expected to do so,also.
[08:06.87]同样在现代家庭中也理应如此。
[08:10.55]The mother in the traditional family
[08:12.38]现代家庭中的母亲
[08:14.21]took care of the children's physical and emotional needs
[08:16.48]如同传统家庭中的母亲一样
[08:18.76]just as the modern mother does.
[08:20.57]照管孩子的身心需求。
[08:22.39]On the other hand,
[08:23.81]另一方面,
[08:25.23]there are some great differences
[08:26.85]传统家庭与现代家庭
[08:28.47]between the traditional family and the modem family.
[08:30.89]之间存在很大的差异;
[08:33.31]The first important difference is in the man's role.
[08:35.49]首要差别是男人的作用。
[08:37.67]The traditional husband was the head of the household,
[08:40.29]传统家庭中的丈夫是一家之主,
[08:42.92]because he was the only one who worked outside the home.
[08:45.41]因为他是家中唯一在外工作的人。
[08:47.91]If the wife worked for pay,
[08:49.63]如果妻子也为挣钱而工作,
[08:51.36]then the husband was not considered to be a good provider.
[08:53.69]丈夫就被认为是个同本事养家的人。
[08:56.03]In many families today, both husband and wife work for pay.
[08:59.01]今天,许多家庭夫妻双双出门工作,
[09:01.99]Therefore,they share the role of head of household.
[09:04.61]共同承担一家之主的责任。
[09:07.24]In addition,
[09:08.56]另外,
[09:09.88]the traditional husband usually made the big decisions about spending money.
[09:12.75]传统家庭中的丈夫往往决定经济开支,
[09:15.62]However,the modern husband shares these decisions with his working wife.
[09:19.01]而现代家庭中的丈夫与妻子共同决定。
[09:22.39]Also,the traditional husband did not help his wife with the housework
[09:25.36]还有,传统家庭的丈夫不帮助妻子做家务、
[09:28.32]or meal preparation.
[09:30.04]做饭,
[09:31.77]Dinner was ready when he came home.
[09:33.75]他回家时饭已准备好。
[09:35.74]In contrast,the modem husband helps his working wife at home.
[09:38.56]现代家庭则相反,丈夫在家时里帮助有工作的妻子。
[09:41.38]He may do some of the household jobs,
[09:43.26]他做一些家务,
[09:45.14]and it is not unusual for him to cook.
[09:47.18]即使下厨做饭也屡见不鲜。
[09:49.22]The second difference is in the woman's role.
[09:51.19]第二个差别是女人的作用。
[09:53.16]In the traditional family,
[09:54.78]传统家庭中,
[09:56.40] the woman may have worked for pay during her first years of marriage.
[09:59.08]女人在婚后的头几年工作挣钱,
[10:01.76]However,after she became pregnant,
[10:03.82]而怀孕之后
[10:05.88]she would usually give up her job.
[10:07.70]就放弃工作。
[10:09.52]Her primary role was to take care of her family and home.
[10:12.30]她的主要责任是照料家人和安排生活。
[10:15.08]In contrast,in many families today,
[10:17.35]相反,在今天的许多家庭中,
[10:19.62]the modern woman works outside the home even after she has children.
[10:22.96]即使有了孩子,现代女性也在外面工作。
[10:26.29]She's doing two jobs instead of one,
[10:28.32]她做的是两份工作而不是一份,
[10:30.36]so she is busier than the traditional mother was.
[10:32.63]所以她比传统的母亲更忙。
[10:34.91]The traditional wife learned to live within her husband' s income.
[10:37.48]传统的母亲学会量入为出靠丈夫
[10:40.05]On the other hand,
[10:41.49]的收入过日子,
[10:42.93]the modern wife does not have to because the family has two incomes.
[10:45.90]而现代的妻子不必那样做,因为家里有两份收入。
[10:48.88]The final difference is in the role of the children.
[10:51.06]最后一个差别是孩子的作用。
[10:53.24]In the traditional famify,
[10:54.86]在传统家庭中,
[10:56.48]the children were taken care of by the mother
[10:58.52]孩子由母亲照料,
[11:00.56]because she did not work outside the home.
[11:02.64]因为她不出门工作,
[11:04.71]However,today preschool children may go to a child care center
[11:07.83]而今天的学龄前儿童由于母亲工作,
[11:10.96]or to a baby-sitter regularly because the mother works.
[11:13.68]他们可以去托儿所或者由保姆定时照看。
[11:16.41]The school-age children of a traditional family were more dependent.
[11:19.24]传统家庭中的上学儿童依赖性更大,
[11:22.06]Their mother was there to help them to get ready for school
[11:24.55]母亲帮助他们准备上学、
[11:27.05]and to make their breakfast,
[11:28.93]做早餐。
[11:30.81]in contrast,modern children are more independent.
[11:33.68]相反,现代的孩子更独立。
[11:36.56]They have to get up early in the morning and get ready for school.
[11:38.98]他们必须早晨早起,做好上学的准备。
[11:41.41]Their mother is bury getting ready for work,
[11:43.60]母亲忙于准备上班,
[11:45.78]so they may even have to make their own breakfast.
[11:48.26]所以孩子甚至自己做早餐。
[11:50.74]In conclusion, the American family of today
[11:53.22]总之,今日的美国家庭
[11:55.70]is different from the family of fifty years ago.
[11:57.98]不同于50年前的家庭。
[12:00.25]In the modern family,the roles of the father,mother,
[12:03.07]在现代家庭中,随着越来越多的妇女外出工作
[12:05.89]and children have changed as more and more women work outside the home.
[12:09.01]父亲、母亲、孩子的作用已经改变。
[12:12.13]The next century
[12:13.61]下个世纪
[12:15.09]may bring more important changes to the American family structure.
[12:17.61]可能给美国家庭的结构带来更大的变化,
[12:20.13]It should be interesting to see.
[12:21.96]能够目睹这一现象将是饶有兴味的。
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